HEATING COOLING HVAC NEW YORK, ALBANY, SARATOGA, BERKSHIRE. RENSSALAER, NY, REFRIGERATION, Commercial Refrigeration, Commercial HVAC, Specializing in national retail chain stores, restaurants, hotels, Breweries and commercial multi-tenant office complexes, we are ready to answer your call., air conditioning, heating, refrigeration, HVAC New York - Heating, Boiler NYC, HVAC, heating & air-conditioning, Sharon Springs, NY, Serving Manhattan, NYC HVAC Contractor , Albany, Amsterdam, Auburn, Batavia, Beacon, Binghamton, Buffalo, Canandaigua, Cohoes, Corning, Cortland, Dunkirk, Elmira, Fulton, Geneva, Glen Cove, Glens Falls, Gloversville, Hornell, Hudson, Ithaca, Jamestown, Johnstown, Kingston, Lackawanna, Little Falls, Lockport, Long Beach, Mechanicville, Middletown, Mount Vernon, New Rochelle, New York, Newburgh, Niagara Falls, North Tonawanda, Norwich, Ogdensburg, Olean, Oneida, Oneonta, Oswego, Peekskill, Plattsburgh, Port Jervis, Poughkeepsie, Rensselaer, Rochester, Rome, Rye, Salamanca, Saratoga Springs, Schenectady, Sherrill, Syracuse, Tonawanda, Troy, Utica, Watertown, Watervliet, White Plains, Yonkers, Westchester, Albany · Allegany · Bronx · Broome · Cattaraugus · Cayuga · Chautauqua · Chemung · Chenango · Clinton · Columbia · Cortland · Delaware · Dutchess · Erie · Essex · Franklin · Fulton · Genesee · Greene · Hamilton · Herkimer · Jefferson · Kings · Lewis · Livingston · Madison · Monroe · Montgomery · Nassau · New York · Niagara · Oneida · Onondaga · Ontario · Orange · Orleans · Oswego · Otsego · Putnam · Queens · Rensselaer · Richmond · Rockland · Saint Lawrence · Saratoga · Schenectady · Schoharie · Schuyler · Seneca · Steuben · Suffolk · Sullivan · Tioga · Tompkins · Ulster · Warren · Washington · Wayne · Westchester · Wyoming · Yates, Adirondack Mountains · Allegheny Plateau · Capital District · Catskill Mountains · Central · Champlain Valley · City of New York · Finger Lakes · Holland Purchase · Hudson Highlands · Hudson Valley · Long Island · Mohawk Valley · New York Metro · Niagara Frontier · North Country · Ridge and Valley · Saint Lawrence Seaway · Shawangunks · Ski country · Southern Tier · Southtowns · Thousand Islands · Upstate · Western, Albany / Schenectady / Troy, Binghamton · Buffalo / Niagara Falls · Elmira / Corning · Glens Falls · Ithaca · Jamestown · Newburgh / Middletown · New York City · Poughkeepsie · Rochester · Syracuse · Utica / Rome, Rensselaer, 12144, Albany, 12201, 12202, 12203, 12204, 12205, 12206, 12207, 12208, 12209, 12210, 12211, 12212, 12214, 12220, 12222, 12223, 12224, 12225, 12226, 12227, 12228, 12229, 12230, 12231, 12232, 12233, 12234, 12235, 12236, 12237, 12238, 12239, 12240, 12241, 12242, 12243, 12244, 12245, 12246, 12247, 12248, 12249, 12250, 12252, 12255, 12256, 12257, 12260, 12261, 12262, 12288, Warren, 13439, Columbia, 13357, Orange, Saratoga, 47382, Washington, 11050, Bennington, 05201, Greene, 13778, Berkshire, 01224, Massachusetts, Vermont, 10001, 10002, 10003, 10004, 10005, 10006, 10007, 10008, 10009, 10010, 10011, 10012, 10013, 10014, 10015, 10016, 10017, 10018, 10019, 10020, 10021, 10022, 10023, 10024, 10025, 10026, 10027, 10028, 10029, 10030, 10031, 10032, 10033, 10034, 10035, 10036, 10037, 10038, 10039, 10040, 10041, 10043, 10044, 10045, 10046, 10047, 10048, 10055, 10060, 10069, 10072, 10079, 10080, 10081, 10082, 10087, 10090, 10094, 10095, 10096, 10098, 10099, 10101, 10102, 10103, 10104, 10105, 10106, 10107, 10108, 10109, 10110, 10111, 10112, 10113, 10114, 10115, 10116, 10117, 10118, 10119, 10120, 10121, 10122, 10123, 10124, 10125, 10126, 10128, 10129, 10130, 10131, 10132, 10133, 10138, 10149, 10150, 10151, 10152, 10153, 10154, 10155, 10156, 10157, 10158, 10159, 10160, 10161, 10162, 10163, 10164, 10165, 10166, 10167, 10168, 10169, 10170, 10171, 10172, 10173, 10174, 10175, 10176, 10177, 10178, 10179, 10184, 10185, 10196, 10197, 10199, 10203, 10211, 10212, 10213, 10242, 10249, 10256, 10257, 10258, 10259, 10260, 10261, 10265, 10268, 10269, 10270, 10271, 10272, 10273, 10274, 10275, 10276, 10277, 10278, 10279, 10280, 10281, 10282, 10285, 10286, 10292

HEATING, COOLING, HVAC, NEW YORK, ALBANY, SARATOGA, BERKSHIRE. RENSSALAER, NY, REFRIGERATION, Specializing in national retail chain stores, restaurants, hotels,
Breweries and
commercial multi-tenant office complexes, we are ready to answer your call., air conditioning, heating, refrigeration, HVAC New York - Heating, Boiler NYC, HVAC, heating & air-conditioning.

 
HEATING, COOLING, HVAC, REFRIGERATION, NEW YORK STATE, NY
ALBANY, RENSSALAER, WARREN, COLUMBIA, SARATOGA, WASHINGTON, BENNINGTON, VERMONT, GRENE, BERKSHIRE,
MASSACHUSETTS
, HVAC, REFRIGERATION, AIR CONDITIONING, HEATING, FURNACES, HEAT PUMPS, AIR FILTRATION, ZONE SYSTEMS, ROOFTOP UNITS, DUCTLESS MINI SPLIT SYSTEMS, COMMERCIAL, WARRANTY SERVICE, INSTALLATION, SALES, SERVICE, DELFIELD, COLD PACK, MANITOWOC, SCOTTSMAN, HOSHIZAKI, NORLAKE, WALK-IN COOLER, CARRIER, TRANE, YORK, AON, GOODMAN, LENNOX, RESTUARANTS, HOTELS, OFFICE BUILDINGS, STORES, COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS, WAREHOUSES, SPECIALIZING IN NATIONAL CHAIN STORES, FRANCHISES AND WARRANTY SERVICE

_____ Specializing in National Chain Stores, Franchises and Warranty Service!
(518) 283-9085
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  ARTICLES:

ARTICLE 1:
The Importance of Keeping the HVAC Air Filter Clean

ARTICLE 2:
AC/HVAC Systems: the Importance of Refrigerant Gas Tracking

ARTICLE 3:
Commercial HVAC Maintenance Economics 101
ARTICLE 4:
Looking at Central Air Conditioning
ARTICLE 5:
The Benefits Of HEPA Air Filtration Systems
ARTICLE 6:
Choosing a Heat Pump Air Conditioner
ARTICLE 7:
Benefits of a Home Heat Pump
ARTICLE 8:
Different Types of Commercial Refrigeration
ARTICLE 9:
How a Commercial Ice Machine Works
ARTICLE 10:
HVAC Glossary of Terms
  Academic:
Information Article 1:
About Air Conditioning
Information Article 2:
About HVAC
Information Article 3:
About Refrigeration
Information Article 4:
About Air Filtration
 



 


 
HEATING COOLING
HVAC NEW YORK


We service: Furnaces, Heat Pumps, Air Filtration, Climate Control, Rooftop Units, Ductless Mini Split Systems, Walk-In Coolers/Freezers, Restaurants, Hotels, Offices, National Chain Stores, Franchises, Specializing in Warranty Service

Carrier, Trane, Lennox, York, Aon, Goodman, Delfield,
Cold Pack, Manitowoc, Scottsman, Hoshizaki, and Norlake

"Through experience we have become
specialists in our field."

We provide professional, quality HVAC service to the commercial, food service and business sectors including national retail chain stores, restaurants, hotels, breweries, and commercial multi-tenant office complexes. We specialize in warranty service. Our HVAC service range also includes the oversight of humidity control systems and computer room air conditioning. We also offer sheet metal and design build services.

All of our technicians are certified by the leading manufacturers in the industry. They continually strive to further their education in this ever-progressing field. Factory sponsored seminars and regular attendance at local RSES meetings are some of the ways that they keep informed. They have established reputations as reliable, competent technicians who keep your best interests in mind at all times.

And our technicians install all of your favorite top brands including York, Trane, Carrier, and Lennox, to name a few. It's only the best for our customers.Through experience in air conditioning, refrigeration, heating and mechanical, we have become specialists in our field.

Customer satisfaction is of utmost importance to our staff so we're not happy until you're happy.

Call us today at (518) 283-9085.

HVAC

Whatever the time of year, feel secure knowing that you have heating and air conditioning experts ready to assist. When your air conditioner goes down you'll feel the heat fast. Call Alpine Refrigeration and we'll have you cool as a cucumber in no time.

And when you need to turn up the heat, Alpine can help you bring up the temperature. Whether you're considering the installation of a complete new system or just need to replace a component of your present system, Alpine Refrigeration is the team of experts you can call.

HVAC equipment, large or small, can fall victim to age, wear and tear, and overuse. Especially when the temperatures are in the extremes, equipment can display a variety of problems that need repair or upgrade services. Refrigerators and freezers in particular can break down and need service if they aren't keeping the food cold, frozen, or fresh.

So, if you need help with heating, ventilation, or air conditioning, call us.

FREE ESTIMATES. Call us today. (518) 283-9085

REFRIGERATION

Whatever your refrigeration needs are, we can lending a helping hand. From an undercounter fridge to a refrigerated warehouse to a 30 ton per day ice machine, we provide full-service maintenance, repair and installation. Our staff will size your systems to perfection, regardless of whether you are "holding" product or "using" product. We can help you select the right equipment for your needs. We take pride in meeting the individual needs of every customer.

If your poultry is feeling the heat, then so are you. A refrigeration issue can be an expensive issue. Poor refrigeration can wipe out your entire inventory. We can fix your problem and we can fix it fast. Don't waste precious time. Our technicians are cellular dispatched so we'll get your refrigeration problems solved quickly.

Don't wait. Call us now. (518) 283-9085

INSTALLATION

INSTALLATION OF:
WALK-IN COOLERS/FREEZERS, REFRIGERATION AND ICE MACHINE

At Alpine Refrigeration we take pride in providing the highest quality equipment, installation and service. We offer full and partial HVAC System Replacement, Ice Machine Installs, Walk-in Coolers/Freezers and Exhaust Systems. From 1 to 100 ton systems, we have the experience to install, clean and service your system.

Is there a specific brand you know and trust? We have it. Alpine Refrigeration is proud to offer trusted brands such as Carrier, Trane, Lennox, York, Aon, Goodman, Delfield, Cold Pack, Manitowoc, Scottsman, Hoshizaki, and Norlake. We think you'll be impressed with our experience as well as the brands we offer.

We also carry a full line of accessories that can improve the indoor air quality as well as the performance of your system. Our installation team can choose from a variety of components and therefore custom design a system that fits your needs as well as your budget.

Let us install your new efficient system today.
(518) 283-9085

MAINTENANCE

We provide full-service maintenance through a dedicated staff to ensure ongoing system maintenance and quick repair.

Why should you choose our ALL-STAR maintenance team?

24-Hour Reliable, Professional Service

All Technicians are EPA Certified

Technicians are Cellular Dispatched

Same Day Service Available

Factory Trained Technicians

Regular maintenance and service of HVAC equipment does more than prolong its life. It significantly reduces the number of break downs, keeps your utility and fuel bills lower by increasing the operation efficiency, and ensures that your system is safe.

With a planned preventive maintenance program, potential problems can be detected and corrected before they turn into a costly and aggravating crisis. The better you take care of your equipment, the better it will take care of you.

REDUCE EMERGENCIES and GAIN PEACE OF MIND.

Call today (518) 283-9085

WARRANTY WORK

Carrier, Trane, Lennox, York, Aon, Goodman, Delfield, Cold Pack, Manitowoc, Scottsman, Hoshizaki, and Norlake


Not sure who is covered under your warranty to work on your equipment? Alpine Refrigeration is covered. We are authorized to provide warranty service for manufacturers. And it gets better... invoices are billed directly to the prospective manufacturer.

When you hire a warranty technician, you're going to want to make sure that technician has experience with your make of equipment. At Alpine Refrigeration, we have the experience and dedication to work on your equipment. That's why all of the best manufacturers trust us to handle all of your warranty work. They wouldn't trust their warranty work to just any team -- only the best. We are also licensed and insured for your added peace of mind.

We take care of your warranty worries. Call today. (518) 283-9085

About CARRIER
To be our customers’ first choice for air conditioning, heating and refrigeration solutions everywhere around the world. Making the World a Better Place To Live, Work and Play From the time our founder invented the basics of modern air conditioning in 1902, Carrier has been the world leader in air conditioning, heating and refrigeration systems. A wholly-owned subsidiary of United Technologies Corporation, Carrier is built upon a legacy of innovation and commitment. Through our market-leading products and solutions, we are constantly striving to help people live more comfortable, healthy and productive lives.

Products

  • Outdoor Systems
    • Rooftop Units
    • Small Packaged Products
  • Split-Systems
    • Condensing Unit Systems
    • Condenser Systems
    • Duct-Free Systems
    • Residential Air Conditioners
    • Residential Heat Pumps
  • Indoor Systems
    • Self-contained
    • Water Source Heat Pumps
    • Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners
    • Residential Furnaces
    • Residential Boilers
    • Room Air Conditioners
Water Chillers & Refrigeration Products
  • Chillers
  • Built-up Systems
Airside Products
  • Air Handlers
  • Air Quality
  • Air Terminals
  • Coils
  • Energy/Heat Recovery
  • Fan Coils
  • Unit Ventilators
Thermostats
  • Commercial
  • Residential
Controls Products
  • 3V Control System
  • Carrier Comfort Network
  • Residential Zoning Systems
Power Systems
  • Microsteam Power System
Standby Generators
  • Standby Generators
Call today (518) 283-9085

About DELFIELD
Temperature Management... Precisely The Delfield Company manufactures and markets a complete line of foodservice equipment for restaurants, hotels and institutions and specializes in custom and reach in refrigeration.

Our product offering includes salad and sandwich prep tables, pizza prep tables, undercounter and worktop refrigeration, refrigerated equipment stands, reach-in and roll-in refrigeration, blast chillers and blast freezers, mobile serving lines, milk coolers, plate and tray dispensers, display cases, modular chef counters and serving lines and custom production centers.

Call today (518) 283-9085

About MANITOWOC
Manitowoc Foodservice, a division of The Manitowoc Company, Inc., designs, manufactures and supplies best-in-class food and beverage equipment for the global foodservice market. Manitowoc Foodservice offers customers unparalleled operator and patron insights, collaborative kitchen solutions, culinary expertise and world-class implementation support and service, whether locations are around the corner or across the globe. With operations in the Americas, Europe, Asia, and the Middle East, the company has a portfolio of best-in-class brands including Cleveland, Convotherm®, Delfield®, Fabristeel, Frymaster®, Garland®, Jackson, Kolpak®, Kysor/Warren®, Kysor Panel Systems®, Lincoln, Manitowoc® Ice, Multiplex®, Merrychef®, Servend® and Manitowoc® Beverage Systems.

Manitowoc Ice - America’s #1 selling ice machine The introduction of our S-Series ice machines put Manitowoc on the cutting edge of technology and conservation in commercial ice machines. Innovations have been made in sanitation, energy savings, reduction in noise levels and ease of serviceability. As a result of our technologies, Manitowoc ice machines are able to achieve the highest levels of energy and water conservation. Over 97% of Manitowoc’s cube ice machines meet or exceed stringent energy performance standards such as those established by CEE or Energy Star®. Manitowoc Ice offers an ice cube maker for any food service equipment application. Daily production levels range from 65 pounds to 2,000 pounds. Ice cube types include; dice, half dice, octagon, crushed, nugget, and flake. Energy Efficient Ice machines Manitowoc is a leader in energy friendly product offerings. Manitowoc makes it easy to be energy efficient. More on energy rebate information for ice machines

Call today (518) 283-9085

About HOSHISAKI
HOSHIZAKI is the name that represents quality commercial kitchen equipment. We specialize in ice machines and refrigeration products around the world.

Call today (518) 283-9085

About TRANE
At Trane, we're all about air – cool air, warm air, clean air. As a world leader in air conditioning systems, services and solutions, we control the comfort of the air for people in homes and many of the world's largest and most famous commercial, industrial and institutional buildings. And we're applying Trane's expertise in environmental technology and energy conservation to make a difference in energy efficiency around the globe.

We live in a world where more people are demanding air conditioned homes and buildings while the cost of energy and concern for the environment are surging. In addition to making people comfortable, conditioned air is essential to the operations of our customers in high-tech manufacturing, hospitals, food processing and many other industries. Trane is a world leader in providing systems, services and solutions responsive to all these modern realities, while delivering maximum energy efficiency.

We're big in big buildings Large commercial systems designed, manufactured and maintained by Trane provide the heating, ventilation and air conditioning for prominent buildings on every continent. We custom design solutions for each building and our substantial services business gives us the resources to partner with each customer for the life of a building. You can find Trane systems working behind the scenes to provide a comfortable environment for office workers in Beijing's World Trade Center complex, audiences at Milan's famous La Scala opera house, baseball fans in Toronto's Skydome and even tourists visiting the Washington Monument. As a leader in green building technology, Trane custom designs building systems that operate with maximum energy efficiency. This is what customers want and the environment needs.

Our commitment to clean air extends from the air people breathe in our customers' buildings to the air those buildings emit into the atmosphere. In 2007 Trane was selected to join the Clinton Climate initiative, a team of business and government partners assembled by former U.S. President Bill Clinton to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from 40 of the world's largest cities. Trane has long been the world's largest producer of the massive chillers in commercial air conditioning systems. But our industry leadership today is based on the comprehensive systems we design to accommodate the specific needs of our customers' buildings, complete with sophisticated controls as well as chillers, all supported with Trane parts and services.

Call today (518) 283-9085

About YORK
HVAC Company for residential commercial and industrial applications

Residential, Light Commercial

YORK designs and manufactures a complete line of heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems for the residential and light commercial markets.

Industrial, Commercial
YORK provides heating, air conditioning, process cooling solutions, equipment maintenance and repair service to a full spectrum of commercial and industrial facilities.

Industrial Refrigeration
YORK Refrigeration provides industrial and marine refrigeration systems, control systems, equipment and services throughout the world.

____________________________________________________________________________________

About HVAC

HVAC (pronounced either "H-V-A-C" or "H-vak") is an initialism or acronym that stands for "heating, ventilating, and air conditioning". HVAC is sometimes referred to as climate control and is particularly important in the design of medium to large industrial and office buildings such as skyscrapers and in marine environments such as aquariums, where humidity and temperature must all be closely regulated while maintaining safe and healthy conditions within. In certain regions (e.g., UK) the term "Building Services" is also used, but may also include plumbing and electrical systems. Refrigeration is sometimes added to the field's abbreviation as HVAC&R or HVACR, or ventilating is dropped as HACR (such as the designation of HACR-rated circuit breakers).

Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning is based on the principles of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer, and on inventions and discoveries made by Michael Faraday, Willis Carrier, Reuben Trane, James Joule, William Rankine, Sadi Carnot, and many others. The invention of the components of HVAC systems went hand-in-hand with the industrial revolution, and new methods of modernization, higher efficiency, and system control are constantly introduced by companies and inventors all over the world.

The three functions of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning are closely interrelated. All seek to provide thermal comfort, acceptable indoor air quality, and reasonable installation, operation, and maintenance costs. HVAC systems can provide ventilation, reduce air infiltration, and maintain pressure relationships between spaces. How air is delivered to, and removed from spaces is known as room air distribution.

In modern buildings the design, installation, and control systems of these functions are integrated into one or more HVAC systems. For very small buildings, contractors normally "size" and select HVAC systems and equipment. For larger buildings where required by law, "building services" designers and engineers, such as mechanical, architectural, or building services engineers analyze, design, and specify the HVAC systems, and specialty mechanical contractors build and commission them. In all buildings, building permits and code-compliance inspections of the installations are the norm.

The HVAC industry is a worldwide enterprise, with career opportunities including operation and maintenance, system design and construction, equipment manufacturing and sales, and in education and research. The HVAC industry had been historically regulated by the manufacturers of HVAC equipment, but Regulating and Standards organizations such as ASHRAE, SMACNA, ACCA, Uniform Mechanical Code, International Mechanical Code, and AMCA have been established to support the industry and encourage high standards and achievement.

Heating

There are different types of standard heating systems. Central heating is often used in cold climates to heat private houses and public buildings. Such a system contains a boiler, furnace, or heat pump to heat water, steam, or air, all in a central location such as a furnace room in a home or a mechanical room in a large building. The system also contains either ductwork, for forced air systems, or piping to distribute a heated fluid and radiators to transfer this heat to the air. The term radiator in this context is misleading since most heat transfer from the heat exchanger is by convection, not radiation. The radiators may be mounted on walls or buried in the floor to give underfloor heat.

In boiler fed or radiant heating systems, all but the simplest systems have a pump to circulate the water and ensure an equal supply of heat to all the radiators. The heated water can also be fed through another (secondary) heat exchanger inside a storage cylinder to provide hot running water.

Forced air systems send heated air through ductwork. During warm weather the same ductwork can be used for air conditioning. The forced air can also be filtered or put through air cleaners.

Heating can also be provided from electric, or resistance heating using a filament that becomes hot when electricity is caused to pass through it. This type of heat can be found in electric baseboard heaters, portable electric heaters, and as backup or supplemental heating for heat pump (or reverse heating) system.

The heating elements (radiators or vents) should be located in the coldest part of the room, typically next to the windows to minimize condensation and offset the convective air current formed in the room due to the air next to the window becoming negatively buoyant due to the cold glass. Devices that direct vents away from windows to prevent "wasted" heat defeat this design intent. Cold air drafts can contribute significantly to subjectively feeling colder than the average room temperature. Therefore, it is important to control the air leaks from outside in addition to proper design of the heating system.

The invention of central heating is often credited to the ancient Romans, who installed a system of air ducts called "hypocaust" in the walls and floors of public baths and private villas.

Ventilating

Ventilating is the process of "changing" or replacing air in any space to control temperature or remove moisture, odors, smoke, heat, dust and airborne bacteria. Ventilation includes both the exchange of air to the outside as well as circulation of air within the building. It is one of the most important factors for maintaining acceptable indoor air quality in buildings. Methods for ventilating a building may be divided into mechanical/forced and natural types. Ventilation is used to remove unpleasant smells and excessive moisture, introduce outside air, and to keep interior building air circulating, to prevent stagnation of the interior air.

Mechanical or Forced Ventilation

"Mechanical" or "forced" ventilation is used to control indoor air quality. Excess humidity, odors, and contaminants can often be controlled via dilution or replacement with outside air. However, in humid climates much energy is required to remove excess moisture from ventilation air.

Kitchens and bathrooms typically have mechanical exhaust to control odors and sometimes humidity. Factors in the design of such systems include the flow rate (which is a function of the fan speed and exhaust vent size) and noise level. If the ducting for the fans traverse unheated space (e.g., an attic), the ducting should be insulated as well to prevent condensation on the ducting. Direct drive fans are available for many applications, and can reduce maintenance needs.

Ceiling fans and table/floor fans circulate air within a room for the purpose of reducing the perceived temperature because of evaporation of perspiration on the skin of the occupants. Because hot air rises, ceiling fans may be used to keep a room warmer in the winter by circulating the warm stratified air from the ceiling to the floor. Ceiling fans do not provide ventilation as defined as the introduction of outside air.

Natural Ventilation

Natural ventilation is the ventilation of a building with outside air without the use of a fan or other mechanical system. It can be achieved with operable windows when the spaces to ventilate are small and the architecture permits. In more complex systems warm air in the building can be allowed to rise and flow out upper openings to the outside (stack effect) thus forcing cool outside air to be drawn into the building naturally through openings in the lower areas. These systems use very little energy but care must be taken to ensure the occupants' comfort. In warm or humid months, in many climates, maintaining thermal comfort via solely natural ventilation may not be possible so conventional air conditioning systems are used as backups. Air-side economizers perform the same function as natural ventilation, but use mechanical systems' fans, ducts, dampers, and control systems to introduce and distribute cool outdoor air when appropriate.

Air-conditioning

Air conditioning and refrigeration are provided through the removal of heat. The definition of cold is the absence of heat and all air conditioning systems work on this basic principle. Heat can be removed through the process of radiation, convection, and conduction using mediums such as water, air, ice, and chemicals referred to as refrigerants. In order to remove heat from something, you simply need to provide a medium that is colder—this is how all air conditioning and refrigeration systems work.

An air conditioning system, or a standalone air conditioner, provides cooling, ventilation, and humidity control for all or part of a house or building. The refrigerant provides cooling through a process called the refrigeration cycle. The refrigeration cycle consists of four essential elements to create a cooling effect. A compressor provides compression for the system. This compression causes the cooling vapor to heat up. The compressed vapor is then cooled by heat exchange with the outside air, so that the vapor condenses to a fluid, in the condenser. The fluid is then pumped to the inside of the building, where it enters an evaporator. In this evaporator, small spray nozzles spray the cooling fluid into a chamber, where the pressure drops and the fluid evaporates. Since the evaporation absorbs heat from the surroundings, the surroundings cool off, and thus the evaporator absorbs or adds heat to the system. The vapor is then returned to the compressor. A metering device acts as a restriction in the system at the evaporator to ensure that the heat being absorbed by the system is absorbed at the proper rate.

Central, 'all-air' air conditioning systems are often installed in modern residences, offices, and public buildings, but are difficult to retrofit (install in a building that was not designed to receive it) because of the bulky air ducts required. A duct system must be carefully maintained to prevent the growth of pathogenic bacteria in the ducts. An alternative to large ducts to carry the needed air to heat or cool an area is the use of remote fan coils or split systems. These systems, although most often seen in residential applications, are gaining popularity in small commercial buildings. The coil is connected to a remote condenser unit using piping instead of ducts.

Dehumidification in an air conditioning system is provided by the evaporator. Since the evaporator operates at a temperature below dew point, moisture is collected at the evaporator. This moisture is collected at the bottom of the evaporator in a condensate pan and removed by piping it to a central drain or onto the ground outside. A dehumidifier is an air-conditioner-like device that controls the humidity of a room or building. They are often employed in basements which have a higher relative humidity because of their lower temperature (and propensity for damp floors and walls). In food retailing establishments, large open chiller cabinets are highly effective at dehumidifying the internal air. Conversely, a humidifier increases the humidity of a building.

Air-conditioned buildings often have sealed windows, because open windows would disrupt the attempts of the HVAC system to maintain constant indoor air conditions.

Energy Efficiency

For the last 20–30 years, manufacturers of HVAC equipment have been making an effort to make the systems they manufacture more efficient. This was originally driven by rising energy costs, and has more recently been driven by increased awareness of environmental issues. In the USA, the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) has also imposed tighter restrictions. There are several methods for making HVAC systems more efficient.

Heating Energy

Water heating is more efficient for heating buildings and was the standard many years ago. Today forced air systems can double for air conditioning and are more popular.

A couple of benefits of forced air systems, which are now widely applied in churches, schools and high-end residences,are 1) better air conditioned effect 2) up to 15-20% energy saving, and 3) evenly conditioned effect.[citation needed] A drawback is the installation cost, which might be slightly higher than traditional HVAC system.

Energy efficiency can be improved even more in central heating systems by introducing zoned heating. This allows a more granular application of heat, similar to non-central heating systems. Zones are controlled by multiple thermostats. In water heating systems the thermostats control zone valves, and in forced air systems they control zone dampers inside the vents which selectively block the flow of air.

Ventilation Energy Recovery

Energy recovery systems sometimes utilize heat recovery ventilation or energy recovery ventilation systems that employ heat exchangers or enthalpy wheels to recover sensible or latent heat from exhausted air. This is done by transfer of energy to the incoming outside fresh air.

Air Conditioning Energy

The performance of vapor compression refrigeration cycles is limited by thermodynamics. These AC and heat pump devices move heat rather than convert it from one form to another, so thermal efficiencies do not appropriately describe the performance of these devices. The Coefficient-of-Performance (COP) measures performance, but this dimensionless measure has not been adopted, but rather the Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER). EER is the Energy Efficiency Ratio based on a 95°F outdoor temperature. To more accurately describe the performance of air conditioning equipment over a typical cooling season a modified version of the EER is used, and is the Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER). SEER ratings are based on seasonal temperature averages instead of a constant 95°F outdoor temperature. The current industry minimum SEER rating is 13 SEER.

Major Terms

Air changes per hour (ACH)

The number of times per hour that the volume of a specific room or building is supplied or removed from that space by mechanical and natural ventilation.

Air handler, or air handling unit (AHU)

Central unit consisting of a blower, heating and cooling elements, filter racks or chamber, dampers, humidifier, and other central equipment in direct contact with the airflow. This does not include the ductwork through the building.

British thermal unit (BTU)

Any of several units of energy (heat) in the HVAC industry, each slightly more than 1 kJ. One BTU is the energy required to raise one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit, but the many different types of BTU are based on different interpretations of this “definition”. In the United States the power of HVAC systems (the rate of cooling and dehumidifying or heating) is sometimes expressed in BTU/hour instead of watts.

Chiller

A device that removes heat from a liquid via a vapor-compression or absorption refrigeration cycle. This cooled liquid flows through pipes in a building and passes through coils in air handlers, fan-coil units, or other systems, cooling and usually dehumidifying the air in the building. Chillers are of two types; air-cooled or water-cooled. Air-cooled chillers are usually outside and consist of condenser coils cooled by fan-driven air. Water-cooled chillers are usually inside a building, and heat from these chillers is carried by recirculating water to outdoor cooling towers.

Coil

Equipment that performs heat transfer when mounted inside an Air Handling unit or ductwork. It is heated or cooled by electrical means or by circulating liquid or steam within it. Air flowing across it is heated or cooled.

Condenser

A component in the basic refrigeration cycle that ejects or removes heat from the system. The condenser is the hot side of an air conditioner or heat pump. Condensers are heat exchangers, and can transfer heat to air or to an intermediate fluid (such as water or an aqueous solution of ethylene glycol) to carry heat to a distant sink, such as ground (earth sink), a body of water, or air (as with cooling towers).

Constant air volume (CAV)

A system designed to provide a constant air volume per unit time. This term is applied to HVAC systems that have variable supply-air temperature but constant air flow rates. Most residential forced-air systems are small CAV systems with on/off control.

Controller

A device that controls the operation of part or all of a system. It may simply turn a device on and off, or it may more subtly modulate burners, compressors, pumps, valves, fans, dampers, and the like. Most controllers are automatic but have user input such as temperature set points, e.g. a thermostat. Controls may be analog, or digital, or pneumatic, or a combination of these.

Damper

A plate or gate placed in a duct to control air flow by introducing a constriction in the duct.

Deep lake water cooling

The heat is rejected to deep lake regions to cool homes and offices, reducing the energy costs.

Delta T

A reference to a temperature difference. It is used to describe the difference in temperature of a heating or cooling fluid as it enters and as it leaves a heat transfer device. This term is used in the calculation of coil efficiency.

Evaporator

A component in the basic refrigeration cycle that absorbs or adds heat to the system. Evaporators can be used to absorb heat from air (by reducing temperature and by removing water) or from a liquid. The evaporator is the cold side of an air conditioner or heat pump.

Fan coil unit (FCU)

A small terminal unit that is often composed of only a blower and a heating and/or cooling coil (heat exchanger), as is often used in hotels, condominiums, or apartments. One type of fan coil unit is a unit ventilator.

Fresh air intake (FAI)

An opening through which outside air is drawn into the building. This may be to replace air in the building that has been exhausted by the ventilation system, or to provide fresh air for combustion of fuel.

Furnace

A component of an HVAC system that adds heat to air or an intermediate fluid by burning fuel (natural gas, oil, propane, butane, or other flammable substances) in a heat exchanger.

Grille

A facing across a duct opening, usually rectangular is shape, containing multiple parallel slots through which air may be delivered or withdrawn from a ventilated space.

Heat load, heat loss, or heat gain

Terms for the amount of heating (heat loss) or cooling (heat gain) needed to maintain desired temperatures and humidities in controlled air. Regardless of how well-insulated and sealed a building is, buildings gain heat from warm air or sunlight or lose heat to cold air and by radiation. Engineers use a heat load calculation to determine the HVAC needs of the space being cooled or heated.

Louvers

Blades, sometimes adjustable, placed in ducts or duct entries to control the volume of air flow. The term may also refer to blades in a rectangular frame placed in doors or walls to permit the movement of air.

Makeup air unit (MAU)

An air handler that conditions 100% outside air. MAUs are typically used in industrial or commercial settings, or in "once-through" (blower sections that only blow air one-way into the building), "low flow" (air handling systems that blow air at a low flow rate), or "primary-secondary" (air handling systems that have an air handler or rooftop unit connected to an add-on makeup unit or hood) commercial HVAC systems.

Packaged terminal air conditioner (PTAC)

An air conditioner and heater combined into a single, electrically-powered unit, typically installed through a wall and often found in hotels.

Packaged unit or rooftop unit (RTU)

An air-handling unit, defined as either "recirculating" or "once-through" design, made specifically for outdoor installation. They most often include, internally, their own heating and cooling devices. RTUs are very common in some regions, particularly in single-story commercial buildings.

Plenum space

An enclosed space inside a building or other structure, used for airflow. Often refers to the space between a dropped ceiling and the structural ceiling. Distinct from ductwork as a plenum is part of the structure itself.

Thermal zone

A single or group of neighboring indoor spaces that the HVAC designer expects will have similar thermal loads. Building codes may require zoning to save energy in commercial buildings. Zones are defined in the building to reduce the number of HVAC subsystems, and thus initial cost. For example, for perimeter offices, rather than one zone for each office, all offices facing west can be combined into one zone. Small residences typically have only one conditioned thermal zone, plus unconditioned spaces such as unconditioned garages, attics, and crawlspaces, and unconditioned basements.

Variable air volume (VAV) system

An HVAC system that has a stable supply-air temperature, and varies the air flow rate to meet the temperature requirements. Compared to CAV systems, these systems waste less energy through unnecessarily-high fan speeds. Most new commercial buildings have VAV systems. VAVs may be bypass type or pressure dependent. The pressure dependent type VAVs save energy while both the types help in maintaining temperature of the zone that it feeds.

About Albany, New York, NY
Albany is the capital of the state of New York and the county seat of Albany County. Albany is roughly 136 miles (219 km) north of the city of New York, and slightly south of the confluence of the Mohawk and Hudson Rivers. The city sits on the Hudson River and has a major port. The Hudson River has been deepened so that ocean-going ships can reach the city.As of July 2007, the city had an estimated population of 94,172.

Albany has close ties with the nearby cities of Troy, Schenectady, and Saratoga Springs, forming a region called the Capital District,a historic area of the United States. The bulk of this area is made up of the Albany-Schenectady-Troy Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), which has a population of 850,957;this MSA is the fourth largest urban area in New York and the 56th largest MSA in the United States.

Albany was built on the site of the Dutch Fort Orange and its surrounding community of Beverwyck. The English acquired the site from the Dutch in 1664 and renamed it Albany, in honor of James II, Duke of Albany. A 1686 document issued by Thomas Dongan granted Albany its official charter. After New Amsterdam, Albany is the second oldest city in the state in terms of its date of incorporation.

History

Albany is the oldest surviving European settlement from the original Thirteen Colonies.The original native settlement in the area was called Penpotawotnot.In 1540 French traders (perhaps the first Europeans to visit the area) built a primitive fort on Castle Island; this fort was soon abandoned due to flooding. Permanent European claims began when Englishman Henry Hudson, exploring for the Dutch East India Company on the Halve Maen (or Half Moon), reached the area in 1609. In 1614, Hendrick Christiaensen rebuilt the French fort (referred to as a French chateau at the time) as Fort Nassau the first Dutch fur trading post in present-day Albany, and left Jacob Eelkens in charge. Commencement of the fur trade provoked hostility from the French colony in Canada and amongst the native tribes, who vied to control the trade. Again due to flooding the fort on Castle Island was abandoned, this time rebuilt in 1624 as Fort Orange slightly to the north. Both forts were named in honor of the Dutch House of Orange-Nassau. Nearby areas were incorporated as the village of Beverwyck in 1652.

When the land was taken by the English in 1664, the name was changed to Albany, in honor of the Duke of York and Albany, who later became James II of England and James VII of Scotland. Duke of Albany was a Scottish title given since 1398, generally to a younger son of the King of Scots. The name is ultimately derived from Alba, the Gaelic name for Scotland. The Dutch briefly regained Albany in 1673 until November 1674, during which time Albany was referred to as Willemstadt. Albany was formally chartered as a municipality by Governor Thomas Dongan on July 22, 1686. The "Dongan Charter" was virtually identical in content to the charter awarded to the city of New York three months earlier. Pieter Schuyler was appointed first mayor of Albany the day the charter was signed.New York State Capitol, begun in 1872 and completed in 1899. At a cost of $25 million it was the most expensive government building of its time

. In 1754, representatives of seven British North American colonies met in the Albany Congress. Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania presented the Albany Plan, the first formal proposal to unite the colonies. Although it was never adopted by Parliament, it was an important precursor to the United States Constitution. During the French and Indian Wars, George Howe, 3rd Viscount Howe was killed while leading British Army troops at the Battle of Carillon (the 1758 Battle of Ticonderoga) and subsequently buried in Albany, today under the front vestibule of St. Peter's Church on State Street.Albany native Philip Livingston was one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. William Alexander, a general in the Revolutionary War, died in Albany in 1783. Shortly after the Revolutionary War Aaron Burr, who had a law office in Albany at 24 South Pearl Street, came into conflict with Alexander Hamilton, who had gotten married in Albany at the Schuyler Mansion to Philip Schuyler's daughter. At 50 State Street, the home of John Tayler (later Lt. Governor and acting-Governor of the state), Hamilton made disparaging remarks about Burr and these were published in a local newspaper. Several United States Navy ships have since been named USS Albany in honor of the City's historical and military importance.

Albany had roughly 500 people in 1686 and had slowly grown over the next 100 years to 3,498 in the first national census (1790). By 1810 Albany, with 10,763 people, was the 10th largest city in the nation. In the 1830 and 1840 censuses, Albany moved up to 9th largest, then in 1850 back to 10th. This was the last time the city was in the top ten largest cities in the nation. In 1797, the state capital of New York was moved permanently to Albany. From statehood to this date the legislature spent roughly equal time constantly moving between Albany, Kingston, Poughkeepsie, and the city of New York.

The State Capitol building was begun in 1867 and finished in 1899 when Governor Theodore Roosevelt declared the building completed. It was inspired by the Hôtel de Ville (City Hall) in Paris, France. Notable architectural features include its "Million Dollar Staircase."

Albany's location on the Hudson River made it a center of transportation from the outset. In 1807, Robert Fulton initiated a steamboat line from New York to Albany. On October 26, 1825 the Erie Canal was completed, forming a continuous water route from the Great Lakes to the city of New York. Also in 1825 a 4,300-foot (1,300 m) long and 80-foot (24 m) wide pier was constructed 250 feet (76 m) from, and perpendicular to, Albany's shoreline. Along with two bridges the pier enclosed roughly 32 acres (130,000 m2) of the Hudson River as the Albany Basin. The construction of the pier and bridges cost $119,980. The Mohawk and Hudson Railroad (M&H), chartered in 1826, built the Albany and Schenectady Railroad between those two cities, starting service on August 9, 1831. The M&H subsequently became part of the New York Central Railroad.Erastus Corning, a noted industrialist and founder of the New York Central, called Albany home and served as its mayor from 1834 to 1837. His great-grandson, Erastus Corning 2nd, served as mayor of Albany from 1942 until 1983, the longest single mayoral term of any major city in the United States.

Between 1965 and 1978, the Empire State Plaza was constructed in Albany's midtown, west of downtown and south of the Capitol. It was, and remains, controversial, in large part because it required the demolition of several historical neighborhoods and the forced removal of Jewish, Italian, African American, and Latino inhabitants.. The Plaza was conceived by Governor Nelson Rockefeller and is now named in his honor. The Erastus Corning Tower stands 589 feet (180 m) high and is the tallest building in New York State outside New York City.Four other smaller towers, the Legislative Office Building, the Cultural Education Center (which houses the State Library and Museum), the Justice Building, and the performing arts center known as "The Egg" make up the rest of the Empire State Plaza. The design of the Plaza is based loosely on the National Congress complex in the Brazilian capital of Brasilia.

A number of north-south streets in Albany are named after birds: for instance, Lark Street, Dove Street, Hawk Street, Eagle Street, Partridge Street, and Swan Street. At one point, the east-west streets were named for animals: for example, Lion (now Washington Avenue), Fox (now Sheridan Avenue), Deer (now State Street west of Eagle Street), and Wolf (now Madison Avenue). The only east-west streets that currently bear their animal names are Elk Street in the Sheridan Hollow neighborhood and Beaver Street in downtown Albany.

Economy

The economy is heavily dependent on the state government, with much of Albany's (and indeed, much of the Capital District's) population being employed by various state departments and legislators. Albany is increasingly seen as a leader in nanotechnology, with the University at Albany's nanotechnology program being respected as a national leader. The city is at the center of a 19-county region in eastern New York state branded as "Tech Valley" due to the growing number of companies, entrepreneurs and research facilities focusing on high-tech industries such as nanotechnology, biotechnology, homeland security, information technology and alternative energy. Chipmaker AMD's spinoff, GlobalFoundries, intends to build a $4.6 billion chip manufacturing complex in nearby Malta and two local public educational consortiums opened Tech Valley High School in 2007 to facilitate project-based learning and emphasize math and science to the area's students.

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 21.8 sq mi (56.6 km); 21.4 sq mi (55.5 km) of that area consists of land and 0.5 sq mi (1.2 km) consists of water. The Pine Bush, located on the far edge of the city with Guilderland and Colonie is the only sizable inland pine barrens and sand dunes in the United States, and is home to many endangered species including the Karner Blue butterfly. Four lakes exist within city limits, including Buckingham Lake, Rensselaer Lake, Tivoli Lake, and Washington Park Lake.

Climate

Albany has a humid continental climate, with cold, snowy winters, and hot, wet summers. Snowfall is significant, totaling about 63 inches annually, but with much less accumulation than the lake-effect areas to the north and west, being far enough from Lake Ontario. Albany however, is close enough to the coast to receive heavy snow from Nor'easters, and the city gets the bulk of its yearly snowfall from these types of storms. Winters are often very cold with fluctuating conditions, temperatures often drop to below 0 °F (-18 °C) at night. Summers in Albany can contain stretches of excessive heat and humidity, with temperatures above 90 °F (32 °C) and dew points near 70. Severe thunderstorms are common, as the city is located in a conducive area for severe weather near the Mohawk Valley. Tornadoes are rare.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 95,658 people, 40,709 households, and 18,400 families residing in the city. The population density was 4,474.6/sq mi (1,727.5/km?). There were 45,288 housing units at an average density of 2,118.4/sq mi (817.9/km?). The racial makeup of the city was 63.12% White, 28.14% Black or African American, 0.31% Native American, 3.26% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 2.15% from other races, and 2.98% from two or more races. 5.59% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Ancestries include: Irish (18.1%), Italian (12.4%), German (10.4%), English (5.2%), and Polish (4.3%).

There were 40,709 households out of which 22.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 25.3% were married couples living together, 16.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 54.8% were non-families. 41.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.11 and the average family size was 2.95. The median home value in Albany, NY, is $175,800. Home appreciation is 12.70% over the last year. The median age of Albany, NY, real estate is 63 years.

In the city the population was spread out with 20.0% under the age of 18, 19.3% from 18 to 24, 29.2% from 25 to 44, 18.1% from 45 to 64, and 13.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 90.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.5 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $33,375, and the median income for a family was $39,932. Males had a median income of $31,535 versus $27,112 for females. The per capita income for the city was $20,340. About 16.0% of families and 21.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.8% of those under age 18 and 12.5% of those age 65 or over.

Culture

Nightlife and Entertainment

Albany's geographic situation as a "Crossroads City" (roughly equidistant between New York and Montreal, Buffalo and Boston) makes it a convenient stop for nationally touring artists and acts. The Palace Theatre and The Egg provide mid-sized forums for music, theater, and spoken word performances. The Times Union Center, previously the Knickerbocker Arena ("The Knick"), or more recently The Pepsi Arena ("The Pepsi"), serves as the city's largest musical venue for nationally and internationally prominent bands, as well as trade shows, sporting events, and other large-scale community gatherings. The New York State Museum is a major cultural draw in Albany, focusing on fine arts, natural history, and New York's economic, political, and social histories.

In recent years, the city's government has invested resources to cultivate venues and neighborhoods that attract after-hours business, as well as public art installations. Madison Avenue (intersection at Ontario Street), Pearl Street, Broadway, and Lark Street serve as the most active entertainment areas in the city, with Lark as perhaps the most culturally interesting street downtown, and Madison as the most popular street where college students prefer to party (midtown). Technically the westernmost border of the Center Square neighborhood and located one block east of Washington Park, Lark Street is home to independent shops, a coffeehouse, restaurants, art galleries, antique shops, bars, and a tattoo parlor. Although the southeastern-most strip was rebuilt in 2002-2003 to place new trees and sidewalks in front of the shops in the active portion of Lark Street, some residents protested the neglect of the northwestern side of the street (crossing of Central Avenue), which enters the less-affluent Arbor Hill neighborhood. Madison Avenue (midtown) and Pearl Street (downtown) are home to the most popular bars.

Summer concert series are sponsored by the city and businesses and held at the Corning Preserve, Riverfront Park, Washington Park, Tricentennial Square, and the Empire State Plaza. Last call for drinks at bars and nightclubs is at 4:00AM in Albany, unlike the earlier time of 2:00AM in much of the nation.This is often attributed to the historical high density of industrial facilities and the demand of second- and third-shift patrons. New York law allows bars to be open until 4:00AM (though local municipalities can override this law and designate an earlier time). Though this law was designed to accommodate the late nightlife of the city of New York, Albany decided to also adopt it since it is typically difficult to clear the streets of bar patrons.

Festivals

  • The Tulip Festival, or the Tulip Fest as it is locally known, is set in Albany’s Washington Park. This traditional Albany event marks the beginning of spring as thousands of tulips bloom in the Park in early May. Tulip Fest is a celebration of Albany’s rich Dutch heritage, and draws both local and regional attendance.

  • Alive at Five is a free concert series held downtown on Thursdays throughout the summer. The concert series features local, regional and national artists and hosts different genres of music each week.

  • The African American Family Day Arts Festival takes place in early August and provides musical acts, cultural cuisine, and family entertainment.

  • Latin Fest offers Latin music, dance, food and crafts every year in Washington Park.

  • The Albany Jazz Festival is held at the end of summer every year in the Albany Riverfront, Park Amphitheater.

  • Lark Fest is a festival held each fall over a three day span. The festvival, held on Lark Street, enjoys local artist performances, unique artisan wares are sold and musical performances by local bands ranging from jazz to metal and everything in between.

Artistic Community

Albany possesses an active artistic community and culture that is often regenerated by students at the region's colleges and universities, the region's many nonprofit cultural organizations, and by former residents of regional megalopolii such as Boston and New York relocating to take advantage of Albany's affordable, historic housing and commercial spaces. The Albany Symphony Orchestra, Capital Repertory Theatre , Albany Institute of History & Art and Palace Theatre provide outlets for locally composed, created, and curated works, as well as traveling exhibitions and shows. There are several small, private art galleries and antiquarian book shops in Albany, mainly clustered around Lark Street between Washington Avenue and Madison Avenue. Also, on Lark Street there is the annual Art on Lark, an outdoor sidewalk gallery featuring artists exhibiting and demonstrating their original work. This annual Sidewalk Art Show and Sale celebrates local artists and musicians. Albany also has two independent film theaters (the Spectrum 8 and The Madison), as well as performing and fine arts venues associated with the University at Albany and College of St. Rose.

Albany is home to a large and important collection of modern art. The Empire State Plaza Art Collection, which belongs to the public of New York, includes works by Alexander Calder, Robert Motherwell and Jackson Pollock. The emphasis of the collection is abstract work by New York artists from the 1960s and 1970s, including representative artists from the Abstract Expressionist, Color Field and Lyrical Abstraction movements. Glenn Lowry, director of the Museum of Modern Art in the city of New York has called the collection "the most important State collection of modern art in the country."

Regional Food

One unique food item particular to Albany is the Neba sandwich. The components of the Neba are fairly simple. Sesame bun, jus cooked roast beef slices, and Tiger sauce. This sandwich was available in the past at Mike's Neba, and currently can be found at area Mr. Subb shops. The Albany Area is home to a small hot dog. At about 3 inches in length, these are usually served with mustard, onions, and a thin 'meat' sauce. The best known purveyors of these dogs are Gus' in Watervliet, Hot Dog Charlie's at multiple locations, and Famous Lunch in Troy. A local manufacturer is Hembold's in Troy, NY.

Notable Residents

  • Albert Janse Ryckman was one of the most prominent Albany brewmasters of the late seventeenth century. Captain of the militia. Deacon in the Dutch Reformed Church. Member of the first City Council in Albany and served as Mayor in 1702-1703.

  • Philip Livingston was one of the signers of the United States Declaration of Independence.

  • Peter Gansevoort was a Colonel in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War who withstood St. Ledger's siege of Fort Stanwix in 1777.

  • Philip John Schuyler was a general in the American Revolution and a United States Senator from New York

  • Philip Henry Sheridan was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War.

  • Bret Harte was an American author and poet, best remembered for his accounts of pioneering life in California.

  • Joseph Henry was a scientist who pioneered several theories of electromagnetism. The SI unit of inductance, the henry, is named after him.

  • Florence Auer was a pioneering early American film actress.

  • Chester A. Arthur, 21st U.S. president, is buried in Albany Rural Cemetery in Menands, north of the city.

  • Learned Hand was an influential federal judge and judicial philosopher who was born and raised in Albany.

  • Erastus Corning 2nd served as mayor of Albany from 1942 until 1983, the longest single mayoral term of any major city in the United States.

  • Andrew Rooney is an American radio and television writer. He became most famous as a humorist and commentator with his weekly broadcast "A Few Minutes With Andy Rooney", a part of the CBS news program 60 Minutes since 1979.

  • William Kennedy is a Pulitzer Prize-winning author whose works feature much of the city's history and its Irish American culture.

  • William Devane is an American film and television actor.

  • Stephen Hannock is a top American landscape painter, with work in Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, NY, the Museum of Contemporary Art in San Diego, CA, the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, MA and the National Museum of American Art in Washington, DC.

  • Gregory Maguire is an American author whose novels include Wicked.

  • Dean Miller, American actor and broadcaster, lived in Albany in the late 1940s and worked in radio.

  • Trevanian, the best selling author of Shibumi, grew up in Albany, and his largely autobiographical book The Crazy Ladies of Pearl Street is set there, showing the face of Albany in the 1930s in exceptional detail.

  • Charlayne Woodard is an award-winning American film, stage and television actor and playwright. She is a graduate of Albany High School. ? Nikki Cleary is a pop-rock singer with Jive Records.

Government and Politics

From Albany's formal organization in 1686 until 1779, mayors of Albany were appointed by the royal governor of New York, per the provisions of the original City Charter. From 1779 until 1839, mayors were chosen by the New York State Council of Appointment, typically for a one year term that began in September. After 1840, Albany's mayors were directly elected by the city's residents. Albany has had 74 mayors since its inception. Gerald D. Jennings is the current Democratic mayor; he was first elected in 1993 and is currently serving in his fourth term of office. He is a member of the Mayors Against Illegal Guns Coalition, a bi-partisan group with a stated goal of "making the public safer by getting illegal guns off the streets." The Coalition is co-chaired by Boston Mayor Thomas Menino and New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg. The Mayor and Common Council President are elected at large. The city council consists of 15 members each elected from one ward.

Albany has been dominated by the Democratic Party since the 1920s, although the local branch was more moderate than the national party, being made up of mainly working-class Catholic families. Daniel P. O'Connell established a political machine in the city with the election of William Stormont Hackett in 1922. O'Connell's operation survived well into the 1980s, as the machine put forth candidates which the electorate dutifully voted for. Mayor Gerald D. Jennings' shocking upset in the 1993 Democratic mayoral primary over Harold Joyce, who had the Democratic Party’s formal endorsement and had only recently been its chairman, is often cited as the end of the O'Connell machine era in Albany.More recently, David Soares' 2004 election as District Attorney has similarly been seen as a breaking of the mold, as Soares was not the favored candidate of the local Democratic Party. Although its founding base Catholics have shifted toward the Republican Party in recent decades, Albany continues to be dominated by the Democratic party. Democratic Party enrollment in the city is 38,862 compared to Republican enrollment of 3,487.This gives Democrats a 10-1 advantage in the general election.

Architecture

  • The Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller Empire State Plaza (commonly known as simply the Empire State Plaza or The South Mall) is a large complex of several state-owned buildings downtown, including The Egg, Corning Tower, Swan Street Office Building, and Cultural Education Center (home of the New York State Museum). Built throughout the 1970s, Empire State Plaza is a powerful example of American late Modern architecture.

  • Albany City Hall is the city's seat of government. It houses the office of the mayor, the Common Council chamber, and the City and Traffic Courts. Designed by Henry Hobson Richardson in his trademark Richardson Romanesque style, the granite building was constructed between 1880 and 1883. Albany City Hall is known for its pyramidal-roofed clock tower, which contains the nation's first municipal carillon. The largest of the instrument's 60 bells weighs 11,200 pounds, and the carillon is still played regularly.

  • The New York State Capitol is the capitol building of the state of New York. Housing the New York Legislature, it is located on State Street in Capitol Park. The building, completed in 1899 at a cost of $25 million (roughly half a billion current dollars), was the most expensive government building of its time. It is a National Historic Landmark. The Capitol was constructed between 1867 and 1899 and inspired by the Hôtel de Ville (City Hall) in Paris, France. It is one of only ten capitol buildings in the United States that does not have a dome.

  • The Alfred E. Smith Building, officially known as the Alfred E. Smith State Office Building and sometimes called simply the Al Smith Building, is a structure located in downtown Albany across the street from the New York State Capitol and One Commerce Plaza. The building's namesake, Alfred Emmanuel Smith, was a four-term governor of New York and the Democratic Party's nomination for the 1928 Presidential Election. The Art Deco skyscraper has 34 stories and at 388 feet (118 m) is Albany's second tallest structure (after the Corning Tower). Completed in 1928, it houses offices of the New York state government. The building underwent an extensive renovation that began in 2002. This modernization, which cost at least $103 million, is now finished. Perhaps one of the most notable features of this building is the carving of all of the state's counties' names scrolling around the entire building.

  • The University at Albany Uptown Campus, located at 1400 Washington Avenue in Albany was designed by renowned American Modern architect Edward Durell Stone. The campus bears Stone’s signature style of bold unified design, expressed by its towers, domes, fountains, soaring colonnades and sweeping canopy. The result is dramatically different from traditional university campuses with dispersed buildings and disparate architectural styles.

  • The Home Savings Bank Building and One Commerce Plaza are among downtown Albany's other high-rises.

  • The Quackenbush House is Albany's oldest standing building (circa 1736), when built it actually sat just outside the city limits (which was at Clinton Ave.). Schuyler Mansion is the popular, modern-day name for a large brick edifice built just inside Albany's southern boundary line in 1761. Situated on a large and commanding stretch of land, this Albany landmark was the home of General Philip John Schuyler. Other historic mansions include the Ten Broeck Mansion in Arbor Hill and the Cherry Hill on South Pearl Street.

  • Originally an Army National Guard armory, the Washington Avenue Armory Sports and Convention Arena is a mid-size venues for sports, entertainment and business. It is home of the Albany Patroons of the Continental Basketball Association and United States Basketball League.

  • The New York State Department of Education Building (1908-12) is a Beaux Arts state office building at 89 Washington Avenue. It is notable for its 36 Corinthian columns, which may constitute the longest colonnade in the United States.

Recreational Areas

  • Washington Park is recognized as one of New York's oldest city parks. The Park was officially organized in 1809, but its current location has been used as a recreational site for well over 300 years. Washington Park's current layout was designed in 1868 by Frederick Law Olmsted. It was opened for the public use in 1871. Frederick W. Brown's Lake House was added in 1876.Previously it had been a cemetery and when they made it into a park they moved the graves to Albany Rural Cemetery.

  • Lincoln Park was organized in 1886. It was originally known as Delaware Square and later as Beaver Park. Today, the park has a pool that is open to city residents during the summer months.

  • The Pine Bush is the only sizable inland pine barrens sand dunes in the United States, and is recognized as a unique pine barrens ecosystem. It contains over 300 species of vertebrate animals, over 1,500 species of plants, and over 10,000 species of insects and other invertebrate animals. Many of them are rare and restricted to the Pine Bush habitat. The Song of Hiawatha by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow is sung by the Indian brave from the Vale of Tawasentha located in the Pine Bush. George Washington wrote of the Pine Bush in his diaries while traveling in upstate New York during the Revolutionary War. In Moby-Dick, Herman Melville describes the dark beauty of the Pine Bush in a long account of a stage coach ride from Albany to Schenectady.

  • Albany Riverfront Park at the Corning Preserve is home to an 800-seat amphitheatre which hosts numerous events from Spring through Fall. In addition, a visitors center houses an explanation of the Hudson River’s tides. The park also features a bike trail and boat launch.

  • Buckingham Lake Park contains a pond with fountains, a footpath, a playground, and picnic tables.

Education

The Albany City School District enrolls about 10,000 students. It includes Albany High School, the city's public high school. The district also includes the Abrookin Vo-Tech Center High School and Harriet Gibbons High School for 9th Graders. The district also has 11 elementary schools and 3 middle schools. Albany public schools spend $9,227 per student. The average school expenditure in the U.S. is $6,058. There are about 13.7 students per teacher in Albany. The city is also home to six charter schools,with three more planned in the coming years.

Colleges and universities in Albany include Albany College of Pharmacy; Albany Law School; Albany Medical College; College of Saint Rose; Excelsior College; Maria College of Albany; Mildred Elley; Sage College of Albany; and the University at Albany, one of the four University Centers in the State University of New York system. The University at Albany Uptown Campus, sandwiched between Washington and Western Avenues in the western part of the city.

Religious Life

Like most cities of comparable age and size, Albany has well-established Catholic, Protestant, and Jewish communities.

Established in 1624, the First Church in Albany (Reformed) is the oldest church in upstate New York. Albany is the location of the mother churches (cathedrals) of the Episcopal and Roman Catholic dioceses of Albany: the Cathedral of All Saints (Bishop William Love) and Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception (Bishop Howard J. Hubbard), respectively.

St. Peter's was the first Anglican church in New York west of the Hudson River, and the first Anglican church in the state north of the city of New York. The remains of Lord Howe, who died during the French and Indian Wars were interred under the vestibule; he is the only British Lord buried in the United States.In 1868 the newly formed Episcopal Diocese of Albany met in convention at St. Peter's to choose a bishop and William Doane, rector of St. Peter's, was chosen on December 3, he was consecrated as such on February 2, 1869 in St. Peter's.

Other notable churches in the city include the Catholic St. Mary's Church and the First Lutheran Church.

A significant Jewish presence exists in the Albany, including Orthodox Jews, Conservative Jews, Reform Jews and one of the few Karaite Jewish communities outside Israel. The Karaite community in the city is active and has its own synagogue. In addition, Albany is known for several landmark events in the history of American Reform Judaism. Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise, one of the founders of Reform Judaism in the United States, first advocated his reforms at a synagogue in Albany, where he was the rabbi. In 1850 he came to blows with the congregation president and the police were called to quell the riot that started on the street.

Media

The Albany Times Union is Albany's primary daily newspaper and the only one based close to the city; its headquarters moved to suburban Colonie in the 1970s after a dispute with then-Mayor Erastus Corning 2nd over land needed for expansion. The newspaper celebrated its 150th year of publishing in 2006.

Serving Albany to a lesser degree are the Daily Gazette (which focuses primarily on Schenectady) and Troy Record. Metroland is the alternative newsweekly in the area, publishing each Thursday, while The Business Review (née Capital District Business Review) is a business weekly published each Friday.

In terms of broadcast media, Albany is part of Arbitron market #63 (radio), and Nielsen DMA #57 (television), and is a broadcast market with historical relevance. The pioneering influence of General Electric in nearby Schenectady directly contributed to the area emerging as the birthplace of station-based television (WRGB) and one of the earliest FM broadcast stations (today's WRVE), in addition to the first federally licensed radio station in upstate New York, WGY. WRGB also has the distinction of being the very first affiliated station of the NBC Television Network. In 1947, this region was also home to the first independently-owned and operated stand-alone FM radio station in the United States, W47A. In the early 2000s, the greater Albany market had the distinction of having the highest concentration of FM broadcast stations east of the Mississippi River.

The Albany TV DMA is served by the following stations, providing programming from many of the English-language American broadcast television networks: WRGB-CBS, WTEN-ABC, WNYT-NBC, WXXA-FOX, WMHT-PBS,WCWN-CW, WNYA-My Network TV, and WYPX-ION. All of these services, with the exception of WNYA, also have companion digital television transmitters serving the region. There are currently no local affiliates for any of the Spanish-language domestic broadcast television networks, however the national service of Univision is provided via basic cable TV. Local cable TV operator Time-Warner Cable provides a 24-hour cable news channel, Capital News 9. Christian television networks TBN and 3ABN are available via low-power translator service to the immediate metro area. Unlike many television markets around the country, TV stations from neighboring markets cannot normally be received in the greater Albany area due to distance and terrain.

On the radio side, the Capital Region has three local News/Talk radio stations, WGY, WROW, and WGDJ on the AM (MW) band. All feature a mixture of locally oriented and nationally syndicated programming. There are two Sports formatted stations: WOFX, local affiliate for FOX Sports Radio; and WTMM, local affiliate for ESPN Radio. Both stations provide local sports and sports-talk programming as well as national content. The FM dial is primarily made up of commercial music-formatted stations similar to those in other cities around North America, the largest of which include Pop music station WFLY 'FLY-92', Adult Contemporary WYJB 'B-95.5', Adult Rock WRVE '99.5 The River', Soft music WKLI 'Magic 100.9', Rock station WQBK-FM 'Q-103', Classic Rock WPYX 'PYX-106', and Country music WGNA 'Country 107.7'. Public radio broadcasting is available from two organisations: Northeast Public Radio serves the Capital Region via their flagship station WAMC-FM, and is the primary local affiliate for NPR network programming, and WMHT-FM is another local outlet that clears select NPR and PRI programming. WAMC focuses on News & Talk programming during the day, various music programs and BBC World Service programming in the evening, while WMHT-FM mainly provides Classical Music programming for most of their broadcast schedule. There are no radio stations in the Albany area that provide programming in languages other than English on a full-time basis. A few individual programs in languages including Spanish, Italian and Arabic are scheduled, primarily on college owned and operated stations.

In total, there are 16 AM/MW stations, 30 full-power FM stations, 14 low-power FM translators, 8 full power analog TV stations, 5 low-power TV translators, and 8 full power digital TV (DTV) stations licensed to communities within 30 miles (48 km) of downtown Albany.

Transportation

  • Capital District Transportation Authority (CDTA) provides bus service throughout Albany and surrounding areas (including Schenectady and Troy) and provides management for the local rail station and those in Schenectady and Saratoga Springs.

  • Albany International Airport, located in nearby Colonie, serves Albany and the greater Capital Region with air service across the country. It is one of the first commercial airports in the world, and the first municipal airport in the United States.

  • Albany-Rensselaer Amtrak station (located right across the Hudson river in Rensselaer, hence the station's name) was Amtrak's tenth busiest station and the second busiest in the state behind New York Penn Station with a ridership of over 730,000 passengers, as of 2006 and serves as a connection point for many Amtrak trains.Greyhound Lines, Trailways, and Peter Pan/Bonanza buses are all served by a downtown terminal which is not far from most state office buildings and is convenient to most CDTA lines. There is also a Chinatown bus service that leaves from Central Ave and goes to Chinatown in Manhattan.

  • The New York State Thruway travels as Interstate 87 into Albany from the city of New York, curving west through Albany, becoming Interstate 90 at Exit 24, then travelling through Guilderland, Schenectady, and Rotterdam, finally heading west towards Syracuse and Buffalo. ? Interstate 787 runs from the Thruway at Exit 23 through downtown Albany, intersecting Interstate 90 and finally ending in Cohoes.

  • Interstate 90 before meeting the Thruway, runs through the north side of the city of Albany, making this portion of the highway the only non-tolled section in New York State outside the small non tolled portion in Buffalo. I-90 runs from the Thruway at Exit 24, loops around Albany, intersects I-787, runs through the western suburbs of Rennselaer County, and finally meets back up with the Thruway on the Berkshire Spur.

  • Interstate 87, after leaving the Thruway system, runs north to Saratoga Springs, Glens Falls, through the Adirondack Mountains, forming a vital link between Albany and Montreal.

  • Other nearby interstates include Interstate 890 running through Schenectady, and Interstate 88 which runs from the Thruway towards Binghamton. A cancelled extension would have had I-88 running through the Capital District to Portsmouth, New Hampshire.

  • The city was once served by both an urban streetcar service maintained by the United Traction Company as well as an interurban commuter service maintained by the Schenectady Railway Company, which also offered weekend recreational tours of the Mohawk Valley via rail. As in many American cities after the advent of the automobile, light rail services declined in popularity in Albany and were replaced by autobus and taxi services.

  • The Port of Albany-Rensselaer located in Albany as well as across the Hudson River in Rensselaer handles domestic and international ships and barges. Major cargo includes turbines and grain. When first built in 1932 the grain elevator on site, now owned by Cargill, was the largest in the world and is believed to still be the largest in the United States east of the Mississippi River.

Albany and its Environs Ranked Against Other Cities

  • According to a study conducted by the Axiom Corp., Albany and its environs are the top-ranked standard test market for new business and retail products, because its population mirrors the characteristics of the U.S. consumer population as a whole more than any other. (2004)

  • Forbes ranked Albany-Schenectady-Troy as the third best place in the country with the best education and named Albany a Top IQ Campus as part of its 150 Places to Live Rich. (2005)

  • Albany-Schenectady-Troy is one of the healthiest communities in the nation according to Self Magazine. (2006)

  • Small Times magazine ranked University at Albany's College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering as the best in the country for micro and nanotechnology. The school was tops in education, facilities and industry outreach. (2006)

  • MSN Money named Albany-Schenectady-Troy as the seventh fastest-growing region that is still cheap. (2005)Popular Science named Albany among its top cities for technology. (2005)

  • Crystal IS made Deloitte’s Technology Fast 500 – a ranking of the fastest growing tech companies in the U.S. On2 Technologies, Albany Molecular Research and AngioDynamics are among the fastest growing New York companies. CORESense, Inc. was named New York’s Rising Star Award Winner. (2005)

  • Albany Molecular Research and Intermagnetics General both made Red Herring’s Small Cap 100 list for bioscience. (2005)

  • Forbes ranked Albany the 18th best place to live and do business. (2006)

  • Forbes ranked Albany the 30th best place for work. (2006)

  • Forbes ranked Albany the 6th best housing market in the US. (2007)

  • S&P puts Albany's credit rating at AA-, the highest of any city in the Capital District according to the November 20th edition of the Albany Times Union.

  • Albany ranked among the 25 strongest housing markets in the US during the toughest economic conditions of 2008.

  • Albany has been named an All-America City on multiple occasions, most recently in 1991 and 2009.

About Saratoga, New York

Saratoga is a town in Saratoga County, New York, United States. The population was 5,141 at the 2000 census. It is also the commonly used, but not official, name for the neighboring and much larger city, Saratoga Springs. The major village in the Town of Saratoga is Schuylerville which is often, but not officially, called Old Saratoga.

Saratoga is a corruption of an Indian word from the Mohawk language. It was the name of Indian hunting grounds located along both sides of the Hudson River where in the Indian Tongue 'Se-rach-ta-gue' meant 'the hillside country of the quiet river.

The Town of Saratoga is located on the eastern border of the county and is located east of Saratoga Springs, and is bordered by Saratoga Lake and the Hudson River.

History

The location was first settled at the end of the 17th Century as "Fort Saratoga.". It soon became contested land between British and French colonial forces.

Saratoga was originally a district of Albany County stretching from north of the Mohawk River to Northumberland, including lands for six miles on both sides of the Hudson River. In 1775, there were three district – Ballstown, Halfmoon and Saratoga.

It is best known as the location that British General John Burgoyne surrendered to American General Horatio Gates at the end of the Battles of Saratoga on October 17, 1777, often citied as the turning point for the United States during the American Revolutionary War. Much of the fighting took place in the Town of Stillwater to the south however the final seven days of the Battles and the actual sword surrender took place in Saratoga.

In 1788, an act was passed organizing towns in place of districts and Stillwater was created from the Saratoga District, making four towns in what would become Saratoga County. These four mother towns were subdivided into the present nineteen towns. The original Town of Saratoga included the modern day Towns of Easton, Northumberland, Moreau, Wilton, portions of Greenfield and Corinth, and the City of Saratoga Springs. The first loss of territory was in 1789 to the town of Easton (now in Washington County). In 1798, the towns of Corinth, Greenfield, Northumberland, Moreau, and Wilton split from the town of Saratoga. In 1819, the town of Saratoga Springs was formed from the western part of the town of Saratoga, later this would become the city of Saratoga Springs.

The Saratoga Race Course in the adjoining city of Saratoga Springs is the oldest operating sports venue in the country, but is often mistakenly associated to the town of Saratoga.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 42.9 square miles (111.1 km?), of which, 40.7 square miles (105.3 km?) of it is land and 2.2 square miles (5.8 km?) of it (5.22%) is water.

The town line is formed by the Hudson River and is the border of Washington County. Fish Creek, a tributary of the Hudson River, is the outflow of Saratoga Lake.

US Route 4 (Turning Point Trail) follows the Hudson River along the eastern part of the town. New York State Route 29 (General Philip Schuyler Commemorative Highway) is an east-west highway, intersecting US-4 at Schuylerville. New York State Route 32 is a north-south highway partly conjoined with US-4 near Schuylerville.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 5,141 people, 2,026 households, and 1,387 families residing in the town. The population density was 126.4 people per square mile (48.8/km). There were 2,286 housing units at an average density of 56.2/sq mi (21.7/km). The racial makeup of the town was 97.80% White, 0.97% African American, 0.06% Native American, 0.16% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.23% from other races, and 0.72% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.17% of the population.

There were 2,026 households out of which 31.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.9% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.5% were non-families. 24.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.00.

In the town the population was spread out with 24.6% under the age of 18, 6.9% from 18 to 24, 29.9% from 25 to 44, 25.7% from 45 to 64, and 12.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 99.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.2 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $42,727, and the median income for a family was $48,482. Males had a median income of $33,178 versus $27,654 for females. The per capita income for the town was $21,716. About 6.1% of families and 7.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.8% of those under age 18 and 6.2% of those age 65 or over.

Communities and locations in Saratoga

  • Burgoyne – A hamlet in the north part of the town. It is named after the commander of the British forces at the Battles of Saratoga.
  • Cedar Bluffs – A hamlet on the east shore of Saratoga Lake.
  • Coveville – A hamlet along the Hudson River, located by The Cove on US-4.
  • The Cove – An arm of the Hudson River.
  • Deans Corners – A hamlet in the northwest quarter of the town located at the junction of County Roads 67 and 70.
  • Gates – A hamlet in the north part of the town. It is named after the commander of the American forces at the Battles of Saratoga.
  • Grangerville – A hamlet near the north town line, west of Schuylerville on NY-29
  • Maple Shade – A hamlet on the east shore of Saratoga Lake, south of Cedar Bluffs.
  • Meyer Corners – A location in the southwest part of Saratoga at the intersection of County Roads 70 and 71.
  • Quaker Springs – A hamlet in the south part of the town on NY-32.
  • Saratoga Lake – A hamlet at the north end of a lake named Saratoga Lake.
  • Saratoga National Historic Site – An national historical park by the south town line.
  • SchuylervilleS – A village in the northeast part of the town, located on US-4, NY-29&32, Champlain Canal, and Hudson River.


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